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Description: Impressionism: Art, Leisure, and Parisian Society
PublisherYale University Press
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Annotated Bibliography
For intelligent histories of Paris and France of the impressionist era, see Agulhon, Chouay, et al. 1983, Braudel and LaBrousse 1977, Burchill 1971, Cobban 1965, Dansette 1976, Dubech and Espézel 1931, Gaillard 1976 and Seignebos 1921. Among the best histories of social life of that era, including the roles of artists and writers, are Alméras 1933, Avenel 1900–05, Bancquart 1979, Carnavalet 1985, Crubellier 1974, Daumard 1970, Duveau 1946, Elwitt 1975, Fleury and Sonolet 1928, Gourdon de Genouillac 1893–98, La Gorce 1899–1905, Miller 1981, Poète 1924–31, Richardson 1971, Seigel 1986, Sennnett 1977, Tabarant 1942, and Zeldin 1973 and 1977. Since the duc de Morny is of special importance, see Boulenger 1925, Parturier 1969, and Pflaum 1968.
Paris guide books are an invaluable source of information and attitude. The successive editions of Joanne are especially good, although guides aimed at foreign visitors by Baedeker, Galignani, and Murray are sources of comparable merit. In addition, one should consult Chamber’s 1863, Delvau 1867, and Paris-guide 1867. For proper orientation, in view of the many changes of street names since the impressionist era, see Hillairet 1964.
Witness accounts by foreigners and Parisians are abundant, and any selection is bound to be arbitrary. For foreigners, my choices include Child 1893, Hake 1878, James 1875–76, King 1868, McCabe 1869, North Peat 1903, Sala 1879, Tuckerman 1867, Vandam 1892, Venedey 1841, and Whitehurst 1873. For French authors, Delord 1869–74, Delvau (several volumes), Du Camp 1858, Fournel 1858 and 1865, Goncourt 1956, Maugny 1891, Privat d’Anglemont 1854 et seq., Taine 1875, Veuillot 1867, Villemessant 1872–84, Vizetelly 1908, and Yriarte 1864.
Studies of the social history of art, or sociological works of first importance for the arts: Benjamin 1973, Bouvier 1914, Brown 1985, Citron 1961, Clark 1985, Corbin 1978, Goffman 1963, Graña 1967 and 1971, Kracauer 1937, Liefde 1927, Lofland 1973, Lukacs 1936, Moers 1960, Nochlin 1971, Rose 1984, Simmel 1971, Stanton 1980, Veblen 1899, and Williams 1981. I should single out Kracauer, Simmel, and Williams because their analyses are especially stimulating, although they do not deal with painting.
The study of Impressionism begins with Rewald 1973, the fundamental work whose first edition in 1946 set the conditions and the vocabulary of its history. Of more recent books, one should begin with Clark 1985 and Shiff 1984, two contrasting works that have enormous value (see remarks about them in the Preface). Bouillon 1981 gives an excellent account of modern writings on Impressionism. Blunden 1981 is a serviceable and lively book that is more accessible than the others mentioned, but more of a good journalistic account than a revealing analysis. (Most of the detailed history of Impressionism and many of the best insights are found in the monographic literature, which is discussed below.) Some recent exhibitions take up the social context of Impressionism: Grad and Riggs 1982, Los Angeles 1984–85, Reff 1982, and San Francisco 1986.
My choice of writings on individual artists favors the most recent works of merit, not necessarily catalogues raisonnes nor landmark publications of an earlier era, which can be found in the bibliographies of the works I cite. Cassatt: Breeskin 1970, Lindsay 1985, and Pollock 1980. Caillebotte: Berhaut 1978, and Caillebotte 1976–77. Degas: Adhémar and Cachin 1974, Armstrong 1987, Boggs 1962, Boston 1984, Browze 1949, Chicago 1984, Janis 1968, Lemoisne 1946–49, Lipton 1980, Reff (several works), Shackelford 1984, Shapiro 1980, and Thomson 1987. Manet: Brown 1978, Cailler 1945, Gronberg 1984, Hamilton 1954, Hanson 1977, Mainardi 1980, Manet 1983, Manet 1986, Moreau-Nélaton 1926, Proust 1913, Reff 1982, Ross 1982, Sandblad 1954, and Tabarant 1931 and 1947. Monet: Gordon and Forge 1983, House 1986, Isaacson (several works), Levine 1976, Paris 1980, Tucker 1982, and Wildenstein 1974–85. Morisot: Bataille and Wildenstein 1961, Morisot 1950, Morisot 1987–88, and Rey 1982. Renoir: Daulte 1971, Nochlin 1986, Renoir 1985, Renoir 1962, and Rivière 1921.
Chapter One
For the transformation of Paris, in addition to the histories of Paris and France, listed above, see especially Alphand 1867 and 1873, Ariste and Arrivetz 1913, Chapman 1957, Costanzo 1981, Fournier 1855, Haussmann 1890–93, Hoffbauer 1875–82, Loyer 1987, Mainardi 1987, Pinkney 1958, and Sutcliffe 1970. Pinkney and Sutcliffe are the key modern works on Haussmann’s Paris; Pinkney is very thorough, but politically naive; Sutcliffe covers less ground, but is alert to the social and human costs of the rebuilding of Paris. Studies of demographics and transport have special value for assessing the changes in Paris after 1850: Chevalier 1950, Dauzet 1948, Gastineau 1863, Gourdon de Genouillac 1893–98, Henderson 1954, Levasseur 1889–92, Merlin 1967, and Weber 1899.
Paintings of the new Paris by Caillebotte, Manet, and Monet are discussed particularly well in Brown 1978, Caillebotte 1976–77, Clark 1985, Isaacson 1966, Mainardi 1980, Reff 1982, and Sandblad 1954. Tuckerman 1867 stands out above most witness accounts because of the author’s astute political and social observations; King 1868 and North Peat 1903 are chatty rather than profound books, but they reveal a great deal about Parisian entertainment and leisure.
Chapter Two
The Parisian dandy and the flâneur are well treated in Moers 1960, a book of real penetration, in Stanton 1980, and earlier by Walter Benjamin in his gifted aphorisms, gathered together in Benjamin 1973. Kracauer 1937 is especially good on the boulevardier and his apparent political indifference under the regime of Louis Napoleon. Manet is analyzed as flâneur in Sandblad 1954, and Caillebotte in Caillebotte 1976–77. Reff 1976 treats Degas’s ties to naturalist writers. Journalistic illustrations and caricature are studied in relation to the impressionists by Gronberg 1984, Isaacson 1982, Reff 1976, Ross 1982, and Wechsler 1982. The most profound interpretation of the apparent objectivity that was so vital to the impressionists’ generation are in Georg Simmel’s essays from the beginning of the century, anthologized in Simmel 1971. Parallels in naturalism are considered by Brown 1978, Caillebotte 1976–77, Caramaschi 1971, Crouzet 1964, Lukacs 1936, Reff 1976, Richardson 1982, and Sandblad 1954.
Chapter Three
The best study ever published of Parisian entertainment is Kracauer 1937, valuable for its many insights although painting is not discussed. Kracauer has wonderful pages on bohemians, and on Degas’s intimate friend Halévy, as well as on the socio-political meanings that abound in Offenbach’s operettas. Marginals and bohemians are examined by Brown 1978 and 1985, Hanson 1977, Seigel 1986, Reff 1982, and Rivière 1921, and they are given witness by Delvau 1862 and 1867, and Fournel 1858. For café and café-concert, the most valuable contemporaneous accounts are Constantin 1872, Delvau 1862 and 1867, Menetrière 1870, and Paulus 1908. Joanne’s Paris guides regularly listed the better known cafés and cafés-concerts, usually with indication of prices; the changes in his entries for cafés in successive editions reveal shifting fortunes and altered patterns of café entertainment. Modern studies of café and café-concert: Barrows 1979, Caradec and Weill 1980, Clark 1985, Courtine 1984, Gronberg 1984, Manet 1986, Marrus 1974, Pickvance 1963, Poète 1924–31, Ross 1982, and Shapiro 1980. Caradec and Weill are especially thorough in their canvasing of café-concert libretti, and their well-illustrated book gives information about leading impresarios, librettists, and performers. For the Folies-Bergère, see Derval 1955. Modern sociological studies examine public behaviour in cafés and make useful observations, even though they are limited to twentieth-century environments: Goffman 1963 and Lofland 1973.
Chapter Four
Modern histories of Parisian theater, opera, ballet, and dance are found in Alméras 1933, Avenel 1900–1905, Gasnault 1986, Guest 1974, Kracauer 1937, and Poète 1924–31. Because of Degas’s lifelong involvement with the ballet, see Boggs 1962, Browze 1949, Janis 1968, Reff 1976, and Shackelford 1984. Since entertainment loomed so large in Paris, the best witness accounts treat theater and opera in some detail. French authors include Boigne 1857, Delvau 1867, Dreyfus 1880, Halévy 1935, Mortier 1875–85, Taine 1875, and Véron 1860. Boigne, Dreyfus, and Mortier examine life behind the scenes at the opera with apparent objectivity. The liveliest foreign memoirs of theater life are King 1868, McCabe 1869, Morford 1867, and Vandam 1892. Joanne and other guide books regularly list theaters of all types, sometimes with prices and typical programs. The Jockey Club, whose role in the Opéra was paramount, is well studied in Roy 1958 and Yriarte 1864.
Chapter Five
The Bois de Boulogne and other parks are examined in Alphand 1867 and 1873, Ariste and Arrivetz 1913, Audiganne and Bailly 1861–63, LaBédollière 1861, Pinkney 1958, Reclus 1866, Sutcliffe 1970, Villefosse 1942, and in relation to artists in Grad and Riggs 1982, Isaacson 1972, Los Angeles 1984–85, and Reff 1982. Guide books are, once again, a good source; Joanne 1885 is particularly good on the Bois de Boulogne. Longchamp, the Jockey Club, and other racetracks near Paris are discussed in Chapus 1854, Roy 1958, and Yriarte 1864. Lively witness is given by Delvau 1867, Joanne 1868, North Peat 1903, and Whitehurst 1873. For Degas and Manet at the races, see Harris 1966, Manet 1983, nos. 99–101 and 132, Reff 1982.
Fashions are easily documented in the contemporary illustrated press (both articles and advertisements) and in numerous fashion reviews. Zola was alert to the significance of fashion in more than one novel, and Au Bonheur des dames (Ladies’ Delight) revolves around the way a department store magnate manipulated his clients with the aid of changing fashions. For fashion see also Baudelaire’s “The Painter of Modern Life” in Baudelaire 1964, Bicknell 1895, Child 1893, Rivière 1921, “Fashion,” in Simmel 1971, and Veblen 1899.
Chapter Six
Suburbs and suburban leisure are considered in Barron 1886, Bastié 1964 (very useful despite its concentration on the twentieth century), Chapus 1854, Dauzet 1948, Gasnault 1986, Gastineau 1863, King 1868, LaBédollière 1861, Liefde 1927, Martin 1894, Merlin 1967, Morford 1867, Phlipponneau 1956, Reclus 1866, and Touchard-Lafosse 1850. Numerous Paris guide books had sections on the suburbs, and some guide books were devoted solely to the environs of the capital; among the best are Joanne 1856 and 1868, and Paris-guide 1867. Suburban boating was often included in books on sport; leading examples are Chapus 1854 and Karr 1858.
For painters’ activity in the suburbs, see Caillebotte 1976–77, Catinat 1967, Catinat 1952, Clark 1985, Grad and Riggs 1982, Herbert 1982, Los Angeles 1984–85, Reidemeister 1963, Rewald 1973, Tucker 1982, and Wildenstein 1974–85.
Chapter Seven
Seaport leisure is well treated in Album-guide 1881, Chapus 1855, Désert 1983, Guide annuaire 1868, Los Angeles 1984–85, Macquoid 1895, Michelet 1861, Rouillard 1984, and Venedey 1841. Rouillard’s book is of unusual distinction. Guide books to Normandy, including Murray and Baedeker, pay close attention to resorts and their amenities. MacCannell 1976 concerns the twentieth century, but has important insights for seaport tourism of the impressionist period. Some works on individual artists have general value as well: Jean-Aubry 1968 on Boudin, and Wildenstein 1974–85 on Monet.
Although there are many studies of leisure and entertainment in mid-and later twentieth-century culture, rather few deal with it in the nineteenth century. The interested reader has to apply to the impressionist era the lessons learned from these publications: Huizinga 1938, Goffman 1963, MacCannell 1976, Marrus 1974, Pieper 1953, Roberts 1970, and Veblen 1899. Rearick 1985 is one of the rare books to concentrate on Parisian entertainment and leisure, but it begins in the 1880s, at the point my book ends.
List of References
Unless otherwise stated, Paris is the place of publication for books. Dates of first editions are recorded in brackets when later editions have been used. Short titles used in the Notes and Annotated Bibliography frequently refer to the most famous edition, regardless of the one used.
Research for this book ceased in 1986; some important publications of late 1986 and 1987 have been listed here, even though I was unable to incorporate their findings.
Adhémar, Hélène. See Paris 1980.
Adhémar, Jean, and Françoise Cachin. Degas: The Complete Etchings, Lithographs and Monotypes. Trans. Jane Brenton. London and New York 1974 [1973].
Agulhon, Maurice, Françoise Chouay, et al. La Ville de l’âge industriel. Vol. 4 of Histoire de la France urbaine (Georges Duby, ed.). 1983.
Album-guide illustré des voyages circulaires, Côtes de Normandie. 1881.
Alméras, Henri d’ La Vie Parisienne sous le Second Empire. 1933.
Alphand, Adolphe. Les Promenades de Paris…. 2 vols. 1867 and 1873.
Ariste, Paul d’, and Maurice Arrivetz. Les Champs-Elysées. 1913.
Armstrong, Carol M. Odd Man Out: Readings of the Work and Reputation of Edgar Degas. Ann Arbor 1987.
Arnheim, Rudolph. “Accident and the Necessity of Art,” Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 16 (1957): 18–31.
Audiganne, M., and P. Bailly. Paris dans sa splendeur: Monuments, vues, scènes historiques.… 3 vols. in 2. 1861–63.
Avenel, Georges d’. Le Mécanisme de la vie moderne. 5 vols. 1900–1905.
Bancquart, Marie-Claire. Images littéraires du Paris ‘fin-de-siècle.’ 1979.
Barron, Louis. Les Environs de Paris. 1886.
Barrows, Susanna. “After the Commune: Alcoholism, Temperance and Literature in the Early Third Republic,” in Consciousness and Class Experience in Nineteenth Century Europe. Ed. John M. Merriman. London 1979.
Bastié, Jean. La Croissance de la banlieue parisienne. 1964.
Bataille, Marie Louise, and Georges Wildenstein. Berthe Morisot, catalogue des peintures, pastels et aquarelles. 1961.
Baudelaire, Charles. The Painter of Modern Life and other Essays. Trans, and ed. Jonathan Mayne. London 1964.
Bazin, A. [Anais de Raucou]. L’Epoque sans nom, Esquisses de Paris 1830–1833. 2 vols. 1833.
Benjamin, Walter. Charles Baudelaire: a Lyric Poet in the Era of High Capitalism. Trans. Harry Zohn. London 1973.
Berhaut, Marie. Gustave Caillebotte: sa vie et son oeuvre. 1978.
Bicknell, Anna L. Life in the Tuileries under the Second Empire. New York 1895.
Blunden, Maria and Godfrey. Impressionists and Impressionism. Geneva and London 1981.
Boggs, Jean S. Portraits by Degas. Berkeley 1962.
Boigne, Charles de. Petits mémoires de l’Opéra. 1857.
Boime, Albert. “Entrepreneurial Patronage in 19th Century France,” in Enterprise and Entrepreneurs in 19th and 20th Century France. Ed.E.C. Carter, R. Forster, J.M. Moody. Baltimore 1976.
Boston Museum of Fine Arts (Sue Welsh Reed and Barbara Stern Shapiro). Edgar Degas: The Painter as Printmaker. 1984.
Bouillon, Jean-Paul. “L’Impressionnisme,” Revue de l’art 51 (1981): 75–85.
Boulenger, Marcel. Le Duc de Morny, prince français. 1925.
Bouvier, Emile. La Bataille réaliste (1844–1856). 1914.
Brame, Philippe. See Lemoisne, Paul-André.
Braudel, Fernand, and Ernest LaBrousse. Histoire économique et sociale de la France. III. L’Avènement de l’ère industrielle (1789-années 1880). 2 vols. 1977.
Breeskin, Adelyn D. Mary Cassatt: a Catalogue Raisonné. Washington, 1970.
Brettell, Richard R. Pissarro and Pontoise: The Painter in a Landscape. Ph.D. diss. Yale University 1977.
———. See Los Angeles 1984 and Pissarro 1981.
Broude, Norma. “Degas’s ‘Misogyny,’” Art Bulletin 59 (March 1977): 97–107.
Brown, Marilyn. “Manet’s Old Musician: Portrait of a Gypsy and Naturalist Allegory,” Studies in the History of Art (Washington, National Gallery) 8 (1978): 77–87.
———. Gypsies and Other Bohemians. Ann Arbor 1985.
Browze, Lillian. Degas Dancers. Boston 1949.
Burchill, S. C. Imperial Masquerade: The Paris of Napoleon III. New York 1971.
Cachin, Françoise. See Adhémar, Jean; Manet 1983; Pissarro 1981.
Caillebotte 1976–77. Houston, Museum of Fine Arts, and Brooklyn Museum of Art (J. Kirk T. Varnedoe, Thomas P. Lee, et al.). Gustave Caillebotte: a Retrospective Exhibition. 1976–77. See Varnedoe 1987.
Cailler, Pierre, ed. Manet raconté par lui-même et par ses amis. Geneva 1945.
Caradec, François, and Alain Weill. Le Café-concert. 1980.
Caramaschi, Enzo. Réalisme et impressionnisme dans l’oeuvre des frères Goncourt. Pisa and Paris 1971.
Carnavalet, Musée. Les Grands boulevards. 1985.
Catinat, Jacques. Douze grandes heures de Chatou et la naissance du Vésinet. 1967.
Catinat, Maurice. Les Bords de la Seine avec Renoir et Maupassant; l’Ecole de Chatou. Chatou 1952.
Chambers’s Handy Guide to Paris…together with an account of the permanent Exposition of 1863. London and Edinburgh 1863.
Champa, Kermit S. Studies in Early Impressionism. New Haven and London 1973.
Chapman, Joan and Brian. The Life and Times of Baron Haussmann. London 1957.
Chapus, Eugène. Le Sport à Paris. 1854.
———. De Paris au Havre. 1855.
Chevalier, Louis. La Formation de la population parisienne au XIXe siècle. 1950.
Chicago 1984. Art Institute of Chicago (Richard R. Brettell and Suzanne Folds McCullagh). Degas in the Art Institute of Chicago. Chicago 1984.
Child, Theodore. The Praise of Paris. New York 1893.
Citron, Pierre. La Poésie de Paris de Rousseau à Baudelaire. 2 vols. 1961.
Clark, Timothy J. “The Bar at the Folies-Bergère,” in The Wolf and the Lamb: Popular Culture in France. Ed. J. Beauroy, M. Bertrand, and E. Gargan. Saratoga, Cal. 1977, pp. 233–52.
———. The Painting of Modern Life, Paris in the Art of Manet and his Followers. New York 1985.
Cobban, Alfred. A History of Modern France. 3 vols. in 1. New York 1965.
Constantin, Marc. Histoire des cafés-concert et des cafés de Paris. 1872.
Corbin, Alain. Les Filles de noces; misère sexuelle et prostitution: 19e et 20e siècles. 1978.
Costanzo, Dennis Paul. “Cityscape and the Transformation of Paris during the Second Empire.” Ph.D. diss. University of Michigan 1981.
Courtine, Robert. La Vie parisienne, cafés et restaurants des boulevards 1814–1914. 1984.
Crespelle, Jean-Paul. La Vie quotidienne des impressionnistes. 1981.
Crouzet, Maurice. Un Méconnu du réalisme, Duranty (1833–1880), l’homme, le critique, le romancier. 1964.
Crubellier, Maurice. Histoire culturelle de la France, XIXe-XXe siècles. 1974.
Dansette, Adrien. Naissance de la France moderne, le Second Empire. 1976.
Daudet, Alphonse. Le Nabab. 1877.
Daulte, François. Alfred Sisley: Catalogue raisonné. Lausanne 1959.
———. Auguste Renoir. Catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre peint. Vol. 1:Figures 1860–1890. Lausanne 1971.
Daumard, Adeline. Les Bourgeois de Paris au XIXe siècle. 1970.
Dauzet, Pierre. Le Siècle des chemins de fer en France. 1948.
Delord, Taxile. Histoire du Second Empire. 6 vols. 1869–74.
Delvau, Alfred, Edmond Duranty, et al. [etchings by L. Flameng]. Paris qui s’en va, et Paris qui vient. 1859.
Delvau, Alfred. Histoire anecdotique des cafés et cabarets de Paris. 1862.
———. Dictionnaire de la langue verte. 1866.
———. Les Plaisirs de Paris. 1867.
Derval, Paul. The Folies-Bergère. Trans. Lucienne Hill. New York 1955.
Désert, Gabriel. La Vie quotidienne sur les plages normandes du Second Empire aux années folles. 1983.
Distel, Anne. See Paris 1980 and Renoir 1985.
Dreyfus, Abraham. Scènes de la vie de théâtre. 1880.
Dubech, Lucien, and Pierre d’ Espézel. Histoire de Paris. 2 vols. 1931.
Du Camp, Maxime. Les Chants modernes. 1858.
———. Paris, ses organes, sa fonction et sa vie dans la second moitié du XIXe siècle. 6 vols. 1869–76.
Duranty, Edmond. La Nouvelle peinture: à propos du groupe d’artistes qui expose dans les Galeries Durand-Ruel. Ed. Marcel Guérin. 1946 [1876]. For English trans. see San Francisco 1986.
Duret, Théodore. Les Peintres impressionnistes [1878], in his Critique d’avant-garde. 1885.
———. Histoire d’Edouard Manet et de son oeuvre. 1902.
Duveau, Georges. La Vie ouvrière sous le Second Empire. 1946.
Elwitt, Sanford J. The Making of the Third Republic, Class and Politics in France 1868–1884. Baton Rouge 1975.
Faris, Alexander. Jacques Offenbach. New York 1980.
Farwell, Beatrice, ed. Manet, special issue of Art Journal 44 (spring 1985).
Flameng, Léopold. See Delvau 1859.
Fleury, Comte, and Louis Sonolet. La Société du Second Empire. 4 vols. 1928 [1911].
Forge, Andrew. See Gordon and Forge 1983.
Fournel, Victor. Ce qu’on voit dans les rues de Paris. 1858.
———. Paris nouveau et Paris futur. 1865.
Fournier, Edouard. Paris démoli. 2nd ed. 1855.
Gaillard, Jeanne. Paris la ville (1852–1870). Lille 1976.
Gasnault, François. Guinguettes et lorettes, Bals publics et danse sociale à Paris entre 1830 et 1870. 1986.
Gastineau, Benjamin. Histoire des chemins de fer. 1863.
Goffman, Erving. Behaviour in Public Places. New York 1963.
Goncourt, Edmond and Jules de. Journal des Goncourts: Mémoires de la vie littéraire. Ed. Robert Ricatte. 22 vols. Monaco 1956 [1887–88].
———. René Mauperin (1864); Germinie Lacerteux (1864); Henriette Maréchal (1865); Manette Salomon (1867); La Fille Elisa (1875); Les Frères Zemganno (1879).
Gordon, Robert, and Andrew Forge. Monet. New York 1983.
Gourdon de Genouillac, H. Paris à travers les siècles. 6 vols. 1893–98.
Grad, Bonnie L., and Timothy Riggs. Visions of City and Country, Prints and Photographs of 19th Century France. Exhib. cat. Worcester, Mass. 1982.
Graña, Cesar. Modernity and its Discontents. New York 1967 [1964].
———. “French Impressionism as an Urban Art Form,” in his Fact and Symbol. New York 1971.
Gronberg, Theresa Ann. “Femmes de brasserie,” Art History 7 (September 1984): 329–44.
Guest, Ivor. The Ballet of the Second Empire, 1858–1870. London 1974 [1953, 1955].
Guide annuaire à Trouville-Deauville, Villers-sur-Mer et Cabourg. 1868 [1866]. Some texts signed Henri Letang.
Hake, A. Egmont. Paris Originals. London 1878.
Halévy, Ludovic. Mme et M. Cardinal (1872); Les Petites Cardinal (1880); La Famille Cardinal (1883).
———. Carnets. 2 vols. 1935.
Hamilton, George H. Manet and his Critics. New Haven 1954.
Harris, Jean C. “Manet’s Racetrack Paintings,” Art Bulletin 48 (1966): 78–82.
Henderson, William O. Britain and Industrial Europe 1750–1870. Liverpool 1954.
Herbert, Robert L. “Method and Meaning in Monet,” Art in America 67 (September 1979): 901–908.
——— “Industry and the Changing Landscape from Daubigny to Monet,” in French Cities in the Nineteenth Century. Ed. John M. Merriman. London 1982.
———. “Impressionism, Originality, and Laissez-Faire,” Radical History Review 38 (spring 1987): 7–15.
Hillairet, Jacques. Dictionnaire historique des rues de Paris. 2 vols. 2nd ed. 1964.
Hoffbauer, T.J.H. Fédor. Paris à travers les ages. 2 vols. 1875–1882.
Hofmann, Werner. Nana: Mythos und Wirklichkeit. Cologne 1972.
House, John. Monet: Nature into Art. New Haven and London, 1986.
———. See Manet 1986 and Renoir 1985.
Huizinga, Johan. Homo Ludens, a study of the play element in culture. Boston 1955 [1938].
Huysmans, Joris-Karl. L’Art moderne. 1883.
Isaacson, Joel. “Monet’s Views of Paris.” Allen Memorial Art Museum Bulletin (Oberlin) 24 (fall 1966): 5–22.
———. Monet: Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe. London 1972.
———. Claude Monet, Observation and Reflection. Oxford and New York 1978.
———. “Impressionism and Journalistic Illustration,” Arts 56 (June 1982): 95–115·
James, Henry. Parisian Sketches, Letters to the ‘New York Tribune.’ Ed. Leon Edel and Ilse Dusoir Linde. London 1958 [1875–76].
Janis, Eugenia Parry. Degas Monotypes. Exhib. cat. Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Mass. 1968.
Jean-Aubry, G. Eugène Boudin d’après des documents inédits. Lausanne and Paris 1968 [1932].
Joanne, Adolphe. De Paris à Saint-Germain, à Poissy et à Argenteuil. 1856.
———. Paris illustré. 1863.
———. Les Environs de Paris illustrés. 1868.
———. Paris illustré en 1870. 1870.
———. Normandie. 1873.
———. Paris Diamant. 1875.
Journal de la Société de Statistique de Paris. Annual, 1860–1914.
Karr, Alphonse. Le Canotage en France. 1858.
King, Edward. My Paris, French Character Sketches. Boston 1868.
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Lindsay, Suzanne G. Mary Cassatt and Philadelphia. Exhib. cat. Philadelphia Museum of Art 1985.
———. See Morisot 1987–88.
Lipton, Eunice. “Manet: A Radicalized Female Imagery,” Artforum 13 (March 1975): 48–53.
———. “The Laundress in Late Nineteenth-Century French Culture: Imagery, Ideology, and Edgar Degas,” Art History 3 (September 1980): 295–313.
Lofland, Lyn. A World of Strangers. Order and Action in Urban Public Space. New York 1973.
Los Angeles County Museum of Art; Art Institute of Chicago; Paris, Grand Palais (Richard Brettell, Scott Schaeffer, et al.). A Day in the Country. 1984–85.
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———. Art and Politics of the Second Empire. The Universal Expositions of 1855 and 1867. New Haven and London 1987.
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———, ed. The Emergence of Leisure. New York 1974.
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