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Description: Inventing the Modern Artist: Art and Culture in Gilded Age America
Index
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00068.014
Index
Abbey, Edwin Austin, 108; as muralist, 325
Adams, Brooks, Law of Civilization and Decay, 86
Adams, Clover, 240, 342 n19
Adams, Henry: on art training, 42; on Boston elites, 215; on La Farge, 239; pessimism of, 86; on Whistler, 239
advertising: and culture of images, 233; in magazines, 6; of self, 233–234. See also publicity
aesthetes: and masculinity, 102–104. See also Wilde, Oscar
Aesthetic Movement: in America, 97; in England, 89
aesthetic sensation, 134
aesthetic therapeutics. See art: therapeutic value of; painting: as therapy
aestheticism: and Anglomania, 101–103; and degeneration, 99–100; and disease, 79–80, 82; and homosexuality, 99–100; neutralization of, 109–111. See also “art for art’s sake”
Agnew, David Hayes: and surgical profession, 179–180
Ahrens, Ellen: Sewing—A Portrait, 305–306, 305
Alexander, John White: The Piano, 145, 146; style of, 39; and virility, 118
American type: nervousness of, 136–138; as outdoorsman, 206–207
Anglo-Saxon elite, 86, 99, 106, 116, 135
art: as commodity, 59–60, 62, 68; and cultural uplift, 9, 69, 70–71, 312–313, 324–326; and mental recreation, 140–141; therapeutic value of, 141–153
art and commerce. See commerce
art collectors, 153–154, 189, 198–199, 203–205, 213–216. See also Clarke, Thomas B.; Freer, Charles Lang
art colonies, 34, 124, 251, 262
art critics: as authorities, 10–12, 14–16; and cultural hierarchy, 8–9; goals of, 8–10; professionalization of, 6; relations with artists of, 14–16; social backgrounds of, 7
art dealers, 46–47, 57–58, 153, 232
art, decorative: social influence of, 69; and spiritual elevation, 70–72
“art for art’s sake,” 110, 290; and Chase, 281; and Whistler, 122. See also aestheticism
art organizations, 27–30
Art Students League, 27, 28, 33, 69, 163
art teaching, 27–28
art training: opposition to, 41–42
artistic identity, marks of: beret, 21, 23, 24, 38, 58, 113; cigarette, 37, 335 n27; facial hair, 21, 35, 163, 222, 249, 270, 277, 289, 293, 294; long hair, 23, 34, 37, 38, 92, 94, 103, 115, 270; monocle, 101, 102, 103, 223, 290, 344 n34; necktie, 21, 23, 163, 291; velvet jacket, 23–24, 34, 35, 92, 94, 113, 162, 289, 290
artistic temperament, 242
artists: as Anglo-Saxons, 19; and businessmen, contrasted, 24–26, 160–161; as children, 267; as cosmopolitans, 34; and critics, 14–16; feminization of, 157–161; and incorporation, 32–34, 38–40, 333 n10; and individualism, 41–45; life styles of, 28–30, 34, 252–254, 262–263, 272; physiognomy of, 25–26; population of, 27; and power, 161; as professionals, 35–38, 333 n4 as saints, 65; as salesmen, 57–59; and scientists, contrasted, 26; as seeing experts, 123–124, 125–129; territoriality of, 124–125. See also bohemia; illustrators; painters; women artists
artists in fiction. See Burnett, Frances H.; de Kay, Charles; McPherson, Ewan; Norris, Frank; Smith, F. Hopkinson; Trilby; van Dyke, Henry; Warner, Charles Dudley; Wharton, Edith; Zola, Emile. See also society painter; women artists
artists’ studios. See studios
audience for art: conservative values in, 290–291; elite, 146–153; elite vs. popular, 71, 142–143, 154–156; and illustration, 321–322; satirized, 291–298. See also taste, popular
Barnum, Phineas T., 98, 231, 237
Baum, L. Frank: Art of Decorating Dry Goods Windows and Interiors, 54–55, 56–57
Beard, George M.: American Nervousness, 135–136; on eyestrain, 140
Beardsley, Aubrey, 98
Beaux, Cecilia: and Bellows, 185; career of, 172–173; on Homer, 191; reputation of, 3; and Sargent, compared, 173–176, 180–181; and Tanner, compared, 184; as woman artist, 173, 176, 180, 183, 184, 186; womanliness of, 181, 183, 185; works mentioned: Emesta, 180, 180; Mrs. Larz Anderson, 173–174, 174; Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt and Daughter, 174–175, 176
Beckwith, James Carroll: life style of, 34, 262–263; at Pie Girl Dinner, 87; Portrait of William Walton, 35–37, 36; on sales, 59; and Sargent, 263, 365 n23; on teaching, 27; on Wilde, 100, 101; on Zola, 263–264
Bellows, George: artistic vision of, 122; and Beaux, 185; masculinity of, 116, 117; River Rats, 122, 132
Bierstadt, Albert, 49, 131
Bigelow, Sturgis, 213–214
Bishop, W. H.: on bohemian life, 252–253
Blakelock, Ralph Albert, 115
Blashfield, Edwin H.: on decorative art, 69; on mural painting, 324
bohemia: and bachelorhood, 267; commercialization of, 269–270; costume in, 247–248; and difference, 261; ephemerality of, 266, 267; male fellowship in, 266–267; as pretense, 268–269; squalor in, 252; as theater, 254–255; as tourist zone, 252, 253, 260, 269–270; women in, 267. See also Trilby
Bok, Edward, 168–169; 353 n12
Bouguereau, Adolphe William, 42, 43, 117, 170, 287
Bonheur, Rosa, 170, 184
Brown, J. G., 50
Brownell, William Crary, 238–239, 241
Burnett, Frances H.: “Story of the Latin Quarter,” 65, 73
business: and adventure, 209–212; and economic cycles, 193–194; and natural law, 192–193
businessmen, 201–202
Caffin, Charles H.: on aestheticism, 80; background of, 7; on Beaux, 174–175; on Homer, 200–201; on Sargent, 175, 177, 179; on Tryon, 170–171; on Whistler, 134
Canaday, John, 300–302
canon formation, 4
Carleton, C., 292, 292
Carmencita, 254–255
Carnegie, Andrew, 31, 193
cartoons: audience for, 290–292; conservative values in, 286, 297–298; cultural function of, 286, 291
cartoonists. See illustrators
Cassatt, Mary, 3, 181
Cather, Willa: on adventurism, 210; on bohemia, 266; on popular taste, 154–156, 304–307; on Trilby, 264; on Whistler, 155–156
celebrity, 233–234
Century Club, 14, 28, 37, 262
Chase, William Merritt, 3; and art for art’s sake, 281; bohemian persona of, 21, 248, 254, 261, 266; and Central Park, 127; competency of, 162; fish still lifes, 127; as gentleman, 22–23; as human camera, 127; materialism of, 67–69; and nervousness, 137; professional image of, 34; as radical, 281, 290; sales of, 16; satirized, 21, 280–281, 289; as seeing specialist, 126–127, 130, 133; at Shinnecock, 28, 127; as teacher, 45; as typical American, 23, 43, 133; vitality of, 151; and Whistler, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74; works mentioned: In the Studio, 67–68, 67; Near the Beach, Shinnecock, 127, 127; Portrait of Gen. James Watson Webb, 136–137, 137; Portrait of James McNeill Whistler, 223, 226
Chase, William Merritt, studio of: described, 50–52; as masculine space, 168; receptions in, 58; sale of, 75
Christie, Howard Chandler, 319
Church, Frederic Edwin, 4, 49, 131, 132, 143; Sunset, 131, 143, 131
Clarke, Thomas B.: background of, 204–205; as collector, 16, 42, 115, 195, 211–212; 1899 sale, 153, 212
Cleveland Street scandal, 98
Cole, Thomas, 131
collectors. See art collectors
color: and emotions, 143–145; taste in, 142–143; as therapy, 142–146
Coman, Charlotte: Clearing Off, 171, 172; and feminine expression, 171
commerce: artistic resistance to, 65–66; and culture, 65–66; and degradation of art, 59–62
consumer culture, 60–61
Cook, Clarence, 7
Cortissoz, Royal: background of, 7, 331 n13; on Beaux, 180; club memberships of, 14; on egotism, 108; on La Farge, 239; on personality, 235; pessimism of, 86; on Sargent, 179; on Tryon, 149
cosmopolitanism: opposition to, 41–44, 313–315
“cosy corner,” 165, 166
Cottier, Daniel, 69, 153
Cox, Kenyon, 290; on color, 145; A Corner of the Studio, 32, 33; as critic, 7, 82; and professionalism, 33–34; on Whistler, 71
Crary, Jonathan, 129–130
critics. See art critics
Cropsey, Jasper, 38
Crozier, W. Ray: on artistic personality, 19–20, 45
cultural transmitter, 8–9
culture. See incorporation; mass culture; modernism; social class, and aesthetic experience; taste, popular; race
dandyism, 101–102, 162–163. See also dudes
Darwin, Charles, 96, 132, 192; and degeneration theory, 80–81
Day, F. Holland, 101, 344 n32
degeneration in America, 85–88; antidotes to, 108–110; causes of, 86; denial of, 83, 85; effeminacy and, 101–105; perceptions of, 85–86
degeneration in Europe: American perceptions of, 82–83, 85, 109. See also Nordau, Max
de Kay, Charles: The Bohemian, 268; on Chase, 127–128; on Ryder, 146
department stores: displays, 53–57; growth of, 53; show windows, 54, 55, 56
Dewing, Thomas Wilmer, 72, 108; anticommercial stance of, 74; and Cortissoz, 14; decorations by, 70–71, 73; as decorator, 69; feminization of, 170; and originality, 42; The Recitation, 71, 73, 70; and the Ten, 168; as womanizer, 73
discipline, bodily, 106–110
Douglas, Mary, 105–106
Downes, William Howe, 14; authority of, 11–12; background of, 7; on Chase, 68–69; gifts from artists to, 15, 332 n16; on Inness, 114; on La Farge, 238; response to Homer, 152–153, 216
dudes, 37, 101, 102, 103, 344 n33
Du Maurier, George: and aestheticism, 89–92; artistic identity of, 283, 284; career of, 282–283; defends illustrators, 283; influence of, 282; satires on Whistler by, 228–231, 283–284, 90, 91, 92, 93, 229, 284. See also Trilby
Durand, Asher B., 129, 132
Eakins, Thomas, 3, 179
Elliott, Charles L.: Portrait of Jasper Cropsey, 38
Elwell, F. Edwin, 171–172, 173, 338 n20
Ewen, Stuart, 234
eyestrain, 139; art as therapy for, 139–142
fame: manufacture of, 4
feminization: and male artists, 157–161
Fenollosa, Ernest, 156, 243–244
Fitch, Clyde: Bohemia, 262; and Wilde, 100
Flower, B. O.: on commerce and art, 46, 60
Fowler, Nathaniel C, 5, 37, 54, 123, 196, 233, 285
Frederic, Harold: Damnation of Theron Ware, 166, 185
Freeman, Mary W., 306, 368 n5
Freer, Charles Lang: and Dewing, 70, 71, 74; and Whistler, 243–244
Frost, Arthur Burdett, 21, 307–309, 315; authenticity of, 318–319, 21, 308
Fry, Roger, 63
Fuller, Henry Blake, 4, 160
Gauguin, Paul, 240
gender roles, 89, 95, 97, 106, 159–160, 178
genius: and androgyny, 169–170, 354 n14; and degeneration, 81; and masculinity, 169–170; and neurosis, 81
Gibson, Charles Dana, 3, 288; on aestheticism, 103–104; on Anglomania, 101–102; decency of, 319; and Du Maurier, 293–295, 368 n12; income of, 320–321; masculinity of, 113, 294–295; in Paris, 113, 287; at Pie Girl Dinner, 319; power of images by, 12–13, 14; training of, 287; on Whistler, 294; on women artists, 181–182, 13, 102, 105, 106, 182, 288, 294
Gilded Age: and bigness, 187–188; defined, 325–326 n3
Gilder, Richard W., 146, 251
Goodrich, Lloyd, 272
Gould, Jay, 197, 201
green carnation, 98, 99
Greenwich Village: as art colony, 251; guidebooks to, 270; as tourist zone, 269–270
Gregory, Eliot: artistic dress of, 163–164; studio of, 163–166
Guyau, Jean-Marie, 141
Harnett, William M., 62
Harrison, Alexander: In Arcadia, 314, 314
Harrison, Birge: on artistic vision, 125; on color, 143, 144; tonalist style of, 150
Harrison, Frederic: anticommercialism of, 59–60; on art as religion, 65; on specialization, 123–124
Hartmann, Sadakichi: background, 331 n3; on Ryder, 74–75, 272–273; on Tryon, 149
Hassam, Childe: Church at Old Lyme, 122, 122; gift to Downes, 15; sensitive vision of, 122; and the Ten, 118
Helmholtz, Hermann von, 130
Henri, Robert: anticommercial stance of, 75–76; and publicity, 245; as revolutionary, 2; studio of, 75; virility of, 117
Hichens, Robert: The Green Carnation, 99
Higginson, Thomas W., 95
high society: and corruption of artists, 63–64, 65, 86–89
Holmes, Oliver W., 142
Homer, Charles S., Jr., 198
Homer, Winslow, 3, 108; and adventure, 207–211; Americanism of, 1, 42–43, 44, 45; American types in work of, 206–207; anticommercialism of, 48–49; artistic vision of, 126; audience for, 203, 212; authenticity of, 199–201; as bachelor, 113, 267; bigness of, 188–189; and Boston collectors, 213–216; business metaphors in paintings by, 191–192; and businessmen, compared, 201–203; canonization of, 4; and Clarke, 205, 216; in Clarke collection, 16, 42; in Clarke sale, 212; collectors of, 189, 198–199, 203–205, 213–216, 359 n23; as decorator, 69; and Downes, 216; economic metaphors in paintings by, 194, 198–199; fishing pictures, 194–195; individualism of, 42, 44, 203, 217; as manly artist, 113; and myth of self-made man, 203; mythic image of, 188–190, 191; and North Woods Club, 207–208; and power, 188–189, 191, 198, 199–201, 203; and Prout’s Neck, 190; and publicity, 5; reputation of, 199; sales, 195, 198–199, 204, 212, 320, 357 n11, n12; and Tile Club, 30; and Tourilli Club, 207–208; virility in paintings by, 206, 210, 212, 215, 216, 217; vitality of, 152; wilderness scenes by, 206–211, 214–215; and women, 203, 358 n21; wreck and rescue themes of, 195, 198–199; works mentioned: Below Zero, 199; Blue Boat, 213, 213; Canoe in the Rapids, 211, 211; Eastern Point, 190, 190; Eight Bells, 195, 212; End of the Portage, 208, 208; Fog Warning, 190, 194–195; Gulf Stream, 49; Herring Net, 195; Hudson River, 213; Hunter in the Adirondacks, 215; Hunting Dog Among Dead Trees, 213; Huntsman and Dogs, 215, 214; Life Line, 195; Lost on the Grand Banks, 194–195, 194; Maine Coast, 1; On a Lee Shore, 189; Ship’s Boat, 195; Signal of Distress, 195, 199; Summer Night, 1, 199; Sunlight on the Coast, 199, 204; Two Guides, 206, 207, 206; Undertow, 195, 198–199, 196; Weatherbeaten, 152, 199, 152; West Point, Prout’s Neck, 48; Winter Coast, 199, 204, 200; Woodsman and Fallen Tree, 213; Wreck of the Iron Crown, 195
homosexuality, 100–101
Hooper, Edward W., 214–216, 317
Hosmer, Harriet, 184
Hovenden, Thomas, 3, 129, 290; Americanism of, 313; bohemian persona of, 364 n4; and modernist canon, 324; populism of, 313; respectable image of, 317–318, 364 n4; works mentioned: Breaking Home Ties, 300, 302–303, 313–314, 320, 301; Bringing Home the Bride, 301, 302; In Hoc Signo Vinces, 313
Howells, William Dean: Coast of Bohemia, 131, 183, 261, 262
Hyde, William Henry, 39, 286, 290; satirizes Chase, 280–281; training of, 287; 41, 280, 282
illustrators: audience for, 321–322; and authenticity, 318–319; and creative freedom, 321–322; income of, 320–321; masculinity of, 279, 283–284, 287, 294–295; professionalism of, 279, 283; satirize painters, 287–290; status of, 279, 283, 284, 290; studios of, 319; and work ethic, 318–319
imitation, 32, 39–40
incorporation: and art world, 31–34; in business, 30–31; resistance to, 41–45; and social change, 30–31; and World’s Columbian Exposition, 32, 331 n17
individualism, 41–45; excessive, 108, 109
Inness, George, 3, 108; in Clarke collection, 16, 42; as genius, 114–115; individualism of, 43–44, 45; as manly artist, 115; personality of, 114–15, 235; as seeing specialist, 130; subjective expression in, 132, 133; vitality of, 150–151; works mentioned: Gray, Lowery Day, 213; Sunset in the Old Orchard, Montclair, 150, 151
interior, domestic: as feminized space, 160, 162; and male control, 167–169; as man trap, 166–167
James, William, 82, 132
James, Henry, 4
Janvier, Thomas, 262
Knight, Daniel Ridgway: Hailing the Ferry, 314, 315
Knoedler Gallery, 48, 49, 188, 191
La Farge, Bancel, 239
La Farge, John, 108, 239, 241; on aesthetic sensation, 134; anticommercialism of, 65, 239–240; color sense of, 143; as critic, 7; as decorator, 69, 168; Entrance to the Tautira River, 143, 144; and Gauguin, compared, 240; and Whistler, compared, 237–239
Lanier, Sidney, 162–163
Lears, T. J. Jackson, 160, 233–234
Life: artists on staff of, 286–287; audience for, 285–286, 290–291; circulation of, 285, 291; ideology of, 284–286
Lombroso, Cesare: Man of Genius, 81
Low, Will H., 9, 252; anticommercialism of, 66; as critic, 7; as mural painter, 324–325; and originality, 42; as professional, 32–35; and Salmagundi Club, 28
Mabie, Hamilton Wright, 44, 110; “Sanity and Art,” 110
Macbeth Gallery, 153
McCarthy, Kathleen D., 159
McEntee, Jervis, 59
McPherson, Ewan: “Revelation in the Pennyrile,” 128
McSpadden, J. Walter: Famous Painters of America, 235
McVickar, Harry, 315, 367 n8; training of, 286; 316
Macy’s, 53, 54, 65, 239
magazines: audience for, 6; authority of, 11–12; circulation of, 6–7; publishing boom in, 5, 6; specialization in, 6. See also Life
man-milliner, 95–96, 109
market for art, 29, 57, 66, 69, 153; and collectors, 16; competition in, 27; European, 58; and tonalist painting, 153–154
Marshall, Henry R.: on aesthetic sensation, 134; on art training, 42; on color, 142–143
masculinity: in artists, 108–109, 112, 113, 115, 295; and bodily discipline, 106–110; and genius, 169–170; in illustrators, 279, 287–290; and scientific knowledge, 177–178; and surgery, 177–178. See also virility
mass culture: and American artists, 2, 4, 5; and art public, 2; and celebrity, 233–234; expansion of, 2, 4; modernism, 326–327; as national art, 326; and power of images in, 12–14
materialism, 60–62
Matthews, Brander, 15, 309, 332 n27
Maurer, Alfred: Arrangement, 306–307, 306
mental gymnastics, 140–141, 143
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 9, 35, 286
Millet, Jean-François: Angelus, 10–11
Mind Cure, 140, 351 n31
Mitchell, John Ames: defense of illustrators by, 279; as Life editor, 284–285
Mitchell, S. Weir, 140
modal types, 234
modernism: authority of, 309, 322–324; and mass culture, 326–327; and popular painting, 322–323; values of, 301–302, 304, 324
modernity: Americanism and, 2; and artistic identity, 2; components of, 1; and eyesight, 131
modernization: author’s definition of, 2
Moore, Humphrey: studio of, 52, 52
morbidity, 107–108
Morgan, J. Pierpont, 198, 201–202
mural painting, 324–326
Murger, Henri: Scènes de la vie de bohème, 255, 266, 365 n11
National Academy of Design, 59, 116, 122
natural law, 192–193
nature: as antidote, 110–112
nervousness: and progress, 136; and social class, 136; symptoms of, 135–136, 137–139
New Thought, 140
New Women, 104–105, 185
Nordau, Max, 111, 115; conservatism of, 82; Degeneration, 80–86, 256; on genius, 81; on Wilde, 99
Norris, Frank, 164; The Octopus, 192; The Pit, 160–161, 201, 210; on virility in art, 162
Norton, Charles Eliot, 60
nude figure painting, 315–318, 369 n17
Oakley, Violet, 66
orientalism, 165–167
Osier, William, 178
painters: emasculation of, 287–290; as frauds, 292–297; satirical names for, 287–288
painting: abstract values in, 133; as commodity, 67–68; elimination of narrative in, 133–135, 141; and revitalization, 150–152; and sensation, 133–135; as therapy, 141–142, 145–149
painting, popular: characteristics of, 303–304; and modernist canon, 323–324
painting, tonalist, 143–149, 150; market for, 153–154
Paris: American art training in, 34, 41, 113, 163, 172, 287, 313; immorality of, 263
Pène du Bois, 118–119
Pennell, Elizabeth, 241, 244
Pennell, Joseph, 222, 244
perception: and subjectivity, 131–133; theories of, 130–131
personality: in art, 235–236; artistic, 19–20, 45; as commodity, 5; cult of, 4; and modal type theory, 234–236; and morbid egotism, 108
Peters, Charles Rollo: and Clarke, 211; Nocturnal Landscape with Adobe Building, 125, 126; as specialist, 125
Phelps, Elizabeth S., 60
Philadelphia Sketch Club, 253
physiognomy: and artistic identity, 25–26
picture frames, 46–48
Pie Girl Dinner, 86–88, 112
populist aesthetics. See painting, popular; taste, popular
Populist Movement, 311–312
professionalism: in art world, 31–34; and modernization, 34; negative connotations of, 38–40
professional-managerial class, 8
progress, 83, 85
publicity: and rise of mass media, 4. See also advertising
Punch: ideology of, 282–283
Pyle, Howard: authenticity of, 319; and Salmagundi Club, 28; studio of, 319
race: and culture, 3, 349 n22
railroad companies: wrecking of, 196–198
realism: and materialism, 61; opposition to, 61–62; and popular painting, 312
Redfield, Edward: masculinity of, 117; The Riverbank, Lambertville, New Jersey, 118
Remington, Frederic: power of images in work of, 12, 13, 14; on sportsmen, 210–211
rest cure, 139–140, 350 n28
Richardson, Henry Hobson, 188
Riis, Jacob, 252
robbery-box, 48, 49, 59
Rockefeller, John D., 192, 201
Rockwell, Norman: artistic identity of, 370 n20; Breaking Home Ties, 322, 323; and modernist canon, 322, 324; popularity of, 322
Roosevelt, Theodore, 116; strenuous life doctrine of, 106; at Tuckernuck, 213; and Oscar Wilde, compared, 97, 102
Rossetti, Dante Gabriel, 24, 283
Ryder, Albert Pinkham, 3; anticommercialism of, 74–75; authenticity of, 272–273; Curfew Hour, 146, 147; as decorator, 69; eccentricity of, 271–272; and Whistler, 75
Sadler, William: Worry and Nervousness, 138–139
St.-Gaudens, Augustus: Portrait of William Merritt Chase, 20, 21,20
Salmagundi Club, 28–29, 252–253, 266
Santayana, George, 134
Sargent, John Singer, 1, 3, 16, 108, 125; analytical vision of, 177–181; criticized by Fry, 63; imitators of, 39–40; masculinity of, 173, 177–181; materialism of, 62–63; personality of, 235; as society painter, 62–63; surgical skills of, 179–180; works mentioned: Boston Public Library murals, 63, 325; Mrs. Carl Meyer and Her Children, 1, 175, 180–181, 177; Mrs. George Swinton, 173–174, 175
Sarony, Napoleon, 248–249
seeing: as artistic specialty, 123–124, 125–129. See also perception
self as commodity, 231, 232, 233–234
self-culture, 307–309
self-made man, myth of, 202–203
self-portraits, 35
sight. See perception
Simmons, Edward, 73, 87, 118
Sloan, John: anticommercial stance, 75; revolutionary image of, 2; as Twillbe, 256
Smedley, Walter T., 309, 308
Smith, F. Hopkinson: as artist-tourist, 125; bohemian persona of, 249; commercial success of, 64; Fortunes of Oliver Horn, 64, 167–168, 247–249; professional persona of, 249–250
social class: and aesthetic experience, 142–143, 147, 154–156; and nervousness, 135–136, 145–146; in wilderness clubs, 208–209. See also taste, popular
Society of American Artists, 27–28, 48, 59
society, high. See high society
Society of Illustrators, 287
society painter: corruption of, 63–64; in fiction, 63–64
specialization: and evolutionary progress, 123–124; and modernity, 124–125. See also professionalism
Spencer, Herbert: on aesthetic pleasure, 148; on evolutionary progress, 124, 136, 192; influence of, in America, 350 n28; Principles of Psychology, 134; Principles of Sociology, 124
Sterner, Albert, 293, 296–297; on illustration, 321; training of, 287 293, 296, 297
Stickley, Gustav, 168
Stieglitz, Alfred, 2, 261
strenuous life, 97, 106, 116
Stück, Franz: Saharet, 82,83
studio: of Dewing, 73; of Henri, 75; of Sarony, 248–249; of Whistler, 73. See also Chase, William Merritt, studio of
studio buildings: Benedick, 267; Fourth Avenue, 73; Sherwood, 262; Tenth Street, 58, 249, 251, 281; University, 267
studios: and cosmopolitanism, 49–50; and department store display, compared, 53, 55, 57–58; of illustrators, 319; as nondomestic space, 254; and orientalism, 52, 163, 165–166; receptions in, 58–59; as showrooms, 57, 58, 163–166; types of, 50, 52–53
summer schools of art, 28, 124
Susman, Warren, 234
Svengali, 24, 25, 32, 228, 229, 255, 264, 272
Taft, Lorado, 184–185
Tanner, Henry O., 3, 184
Tarbell, Edmund, 118; and the nude, 184
taste, elite. See modernism; social class, and aesthetic experience
taste, popular, 142–143, 154–156; class and region in, 303, 311–312; and nativism, 313–315; opposition to modernism in, 305–307, 314–315; and Populism, 311–313; and self-culture, 307–309; values of, 303–307. See also audience for art; painting, popular
Ten American Painters, 118–119, 189, 347 n54
Thanet, Octave: “The Provincials,” 307–309
Thayer, Abbott, 61; Caritas, 82, 84
Tile Club, 21, 29–30, 69, 247–248
Trachtenberg, Alan, 311–312
transvestism, 101, 104
Trilby (Du Maurier), 24, 283, 284; artists’ life styles in, 257–259; cleanliness in, 257, 263, 264; commercialism of, 260–261; critical responses to, 259–260; male fellowship in, 257, 258, 264–265; nostalgia of, 259; sex in, 264–266. See also Du Maurier; Svengali
Tryon, Dwight, 108; gender in work of, 170–171, 172, 176; and popular taste, 154; and spiritual elevation, 150; subjective expression in, 131; therapeutic effects in paintings by, 146–149; works mentioned: Early Spring, New England, 170–171, 171; May, 154, 154; Twilight: Early Spring, 146–149, 148
Twachtman, John, 108, 187, 351 n31
Universal Exposition, Paris, 1, 41
van Dyke, Henry: background of, 352 n39; on sportsmen, 208; “White Blot,” 149–150
Van Dyke, John, 141; Art for Art’s Sake, 110; on artistic vision, 125; background of, 354 n41; on Chase, 69; on color, 144
Van Rensselaer, Mariana: on artistic personality, 235; background, 7; on Beaux, 175; on Chase, 69
Van Schaick, S. S., 289, 367 n8; 289
Veblen, Thorstein, 260
virility: as fad, 163; as marketing strategy, 162–163
Walton, William, 23, 35, 37, 173
Wanamaker, John, 161
Wanamaker’s, 53, 55
Warhol, Andy, 245–246
Warner, Charles Dudley: Golden House, 254; Little Journey in the World, 196
Weir, J. Alden, 189; individualism of, 108; and nature cure, 110–112; at Pie Girl Dinner, 87, 112; as professional, 37; works mentioned: In the Shade of a Tree, 111, 112; Self-Portrait, 37, 38
Welch, Mabel, 163
Wharton, Edith: Custom of the Country, 63
Wheeler, Candace, 262; as decorator, 353 n12
Whistler, James McNeill, 3, 108, 125; anticommercialism of, 74; antimaterialism of, 71–72, 73; and art for art’s sake, 120, 122; artistic temperament of, 242; artistic vision of, 126; asceticism of, 73; authority of, 120–122; and Barnum, compared, 231, 237; bibliography on, 244–245; bohemian persona of, 266; canonization of, 4, 243–245; in caricature, 223, 229, 230–231; color in works of, 71; combativeness of, 116, 346 n50; costume and grooming of, 222–223; and critics, 224–225; as decorator, 69, 168, 169; exhibitions, design of, 228; in Freer collection, 243–244; Gentle Art of Making Enemies, 224, 230–231; as graphic artist, 240–241; illegibility of nocturnes by, 156; imitators of, 39; masculinity of, 115–116; and nervousness, 137; as painter, 240, 241–242; personality of, 237, 242–244; and publicity, 15, 223–224, 227–232; self-advertising techniques of, 230–231; studio of, 73; subjective expression in, 132, 133; “Ten O’Clock,” 120–122; and Trilby, 228–231; and Velazquez, 282; and Warhol, compared, 245–246; Whistler vs. Ruskin. Art and Art Critics, 227; works mentioned: Arrangement in Black: Sarasate, 155, 155; Arrangement in Grey and Black No. 1: The Artist’s Mother, 223, 241–242; Harmony in Yellow and Gold, 240; Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket, 120, 121; Nocturne in Blue and Silver, 71, 73, 72; Peacock Room, 69, 227, 237; The White Girl, 224
Whistler v. Ruskin trial, 120, 156, 227, 241, 296–297
White, Stanford: as decorator, 168; double life of, 88, 112; murder of, 88; at Pie Girl Dinner, 87; as symbol of depravity, 88, 89; and Tile Club, 29; as womanizer, 73
Whitman, Walt, 163
Wilde, Oscar, 111, 231, 279; American lecture tour of, 92–97; attacks on, 94–95; and Barnum, compared, 98; in caricature, 89–96; conviction and jail term of, 99–100; costume and grooming of, 92, 94; criticism of works by, 98; as degenerate, 99, 100, 101; and effeminacy, 95–96, 99; femininity of, 94; and homophobia, 95–96, 98–100; Picture of Dorian Gray, 97–98, 266; and regression, 96; Salome, 98; Vera; or, The Nihilist, 97; and women, 92–94, 103
Wilde, Willie, 97
wilderness clubs: social aspects of, 208–209
window dressers, 54, 55
women: creativity and, 169
women artists: biases against, 170, 171–172; denigration of, 181–183; domination by men, 160; in fiction, 182–183; population of, 160; seen as mannish, 184
Wood, Henry, 192–193, 202
World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago: and corporate culture, 32, 331 n17; decoration of, 34; elite culture and, 307; Hovenden’s Breaking Home Ties at, 300, 303, 313, 320
wreck: as business metaphor, 195
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 168
Wyant, Alexander: Eventide, 145, 145
Wyeth, N. C.: and artistic identity, 321
Yellow Book, 98, 260, 294, 343 n27
Yohn, Frederick C.: studio of, 319, 320
Zola, Emile: criticism of, 61; L’Oeuvre, 263–264
Index