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List of illustrations

  • Hans Himmelheber selecting objects for purchase, Côte d'Ivoire
  • Household hearth made and used by Kofi Afwe Monique, Yamoussoukro, Akwe region, Côte d'Ivoire
  • Trance diviner Bakra in performance with his sculpture for Mbra, Bonikouassikro, Agbe region, Côte d'Ivoire
  • Woman having her hair done, unnamed Baule village, Côte d'Ivoire
  • Woman with her finished coiffure, unnamed Baule village, Côte d'Ivoire
  • Infant receives daily washing, unnamed Baule village, Côte d'Ivoire
  • Cup
  • Snuff Mortar
  • Female Face Mask (Mwana Pwo or Pwo)
  • Female Face Mask (Mwana Pwo or Pwo)
  • Male Figure (Identified as Chibinda Ilunga)
  • Male Figure
  • Bowstand
  • Keloid scarifications on the face of a Kutu woman, Boende, Tshuapa Province, Democatic Republic of the Congo
  • Girl with the guhota sanga hairstyle among the Pende people, Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Maiden Spirit maskers among the Igbo people, near Awka, Nigeria
  • Mgbedike (time of the brave) masker among the Igbo people, in performace near Awka, Nigeria
  • Palace of the ògògá (king) among the Yòrùbá people, Ìkéré, Èkiti region, Nigeria
  • King's palace among the Bamileke people, Batoufam, Cameroon
  • Veranda Post (Òpó Ògògá)
  • Post
  • Half-Male, Half-Female Figure
  • Figure
  • Mask (Molo)
  • Female Figure
  • Male and Female Paired Figures
  • Staff Finial
  • Ceremonial Fly Whisk
  • Scepter (Mfunka)
  • Male and Female Figure Pair (Edan Ògbóni)
  • Face Bell (Omo)
  • Male Figure
  • Female Figure
  • Helmet
  • Prestige stool (Kuo)
  • Trophy Head (Atwonzen)
  • Headrest
  • Headrest
  • Headrest
  • Backrest
  • Ritual Stool (Kiti Cha Mtemi)
  • Caryatid Mortar
  • Pipe Bowl
  • Water Pipe
  • Snuff Kerrie
  • Snuff Kerrie
  • Snuff Container
  • Snuff Container
  • Pipe
  • Headrest-Container
  • Cup
  • Palm Wine Cup (Mbwoongntey)
  • Ceremonial Ladle (Wunkirmian or Wakemia)
  • Spoon
  • Spoon
  • Ritual Pot
  • Spirit Vessel (Mbir'thleng'nda)
  • Pipe
  • Display Cloth (Ndop)
  • The collection of J. F. G. Umlauff, Hamburg, in his Kamerun Sammlung-Bali Bamum
  • Reliquary element forming a head, Fang, Gabon
  • Display of artifacts from Gabon, including seven Kota-style reliquary elements, at the Musée d'Ethnographie du Trocadéro, Paris
  • [Gallery] 291 – Picasso-Braque Exhibition
  • Installation view of the exhibition at the Gallery of the Théâtre Pigalle, Paris
  • Untitled
  • Reliquary Guardian Figure (Mbulu Ngulu)
  • Reliquary Guardian Figure (Mbulu Ngulu)
  • Reliquary Guardian Figure (Mbulu Ngulu)
  • Reliquary Guardian Figure (Mbulu Ngulu)
  • Reliquary Guardian Figure (Mbulu Ngulu)
  • Reliquary Guardian Figure (Mbulu Ngulu)
  • Reliquary Guardian Figure (Mbulu Ngulu)
  • Reliquary Guardian Figure (Mbulu Ngulu)
  • Crest Mask (Tungunga)
  • Portrait of a Queen (Wife of King Njike)
  • Drum
  • Face Mask
  • Head (Identified as a Monkey)
  • Portrait Figure of a King (Ndop): Mbó Mbóosh, Mishé miShyááng máMbúl, or Kot áNće
  • Face Mask (Ngady Mwaash)
  • Cup
  • Cup
  • Ceremonial Skirt
  • Face Mask (Mfͻn εkpo)
  • Mfͻn εkpo mask in performance among the Annang people, Abak, Nigeria
  • Face Mask (Idiok εkpo)
  • Idiok εkpo mask in performance among the Annang people, Nko, near Ikot Ekpene, Nigeria
  • Yayoroba mask performance among the Bamana people, Kirango village, Mali
  • Gyela lu Zauli mask performance among the Guro people, Tibeita village, Zuenoula region Côte d'Ivoire
  • Masker among the Dan people, Liberia
  • Male Figure
  • An Anogiri mask and its attendant among the Okpella people, Nigeria
  • Divination Bowl (Àgéré Ifá)
  • Two reliquary figures, taken outside to be photographed among the Fang people
  • Female Reliquary Figure (Eyema Bieri)
  • Female Figure (Onílè)
  • Ciwara mask performance among the Bamana people, Boussin village, Mali
  • Female Mask (Gambanda)
  • Mask: Female (Pwo)
  • Face Mask (Gu)
  • Sande dancer performing with a mask sculpted in 1954 by Mustafa Ado Dassama, among the Mende people, Ngiyehun village, Luawa chiefdom, Kailahun District, Sierra Leone
  • Women's society masker leading a procession among the Temne people, Maforki chiefdom, Sierra Leone
  • Mother-and-Child Figure
  • Helmet Crest Mask (Kͻmͻ kun/Wara Kun)
  • Helmet Crest Mask (Troh)
  • Mask Representing an Antisocial Character (Gongoli)
  • Gongoli masker among the Mende people, Bo Town, Bo District, Sierra Leone
  • Women trying to prevent Gonde from interfering with a Sande performance among the Mende people, Ngiyehun village, Luawa chiefdom, Kailahun District, Sierra Leone
  • Pair of Headdresses (Tyi Wara Kunw)
  • Male Headdress (Ciwara Kun)
  • Female Headdress (Ciawara Kun)
  • Headdress (N'gonzon Kun)
  • Headdress (N'gonzon Kun)
  • Headdress (Sogoni Kun)
  • Headdress (Sogoni Kun)
  • Headdress (Sogoni Kun)
  • Headdress (Ciwara Kun)
  • Face Mask (N'tomo Kun)
  • Face Mask (N'tomo Kun)
  • Puppet in the Shape of a Female Bust (Yayoruba)
  • Female Figure (Jonyeleni or Nyeleni)
  • Female Figure (Jonyeleni or Nyeleni)
  • Helmet Mask (Sowei)
  • Helmet Mask (Sowei)
  • Female Helmet Mask (Ndoli Jowei)
  • Helmet Mask (Sowei)
  • Helmet Mask (Sowei)
  • Dance Staff (Oshe Sàngó)
  • Figural Staff (Ògó Èsù)
  • Helmet Mask (Epa Jagúnjagún)
  • Face Mask (Epa Olóyiya)
  • Headdress (Gèlèdé)
  • Female Figure with a Bowl (Olúmèye)
  • Mother and Child Caryatid Vessel (Agéré Ifá)
  • Tapper with Maternity Figure (Ìróké Ifá)
  • Divination Tray (Opón Ifá)
  • Reliquary Guardian Figure (Eyema Byeri)
  • Female Reliquary Guardian Figure (Eyema Bieri)
  • Female Reliquary Guardian Figure (Eyema Bieri)
  • Male Reliquary Guardian Figure (Eyema Byeri)
  • Male Reliquary Guardian Figure (Eyema Byeri)
  • Male Reliquary Guardian Figure (Eyema Byeri)
  • Male Reliquary Guardian Figure (Eyema Byeri)
  • Male reliquary guardian figure (eyema byeri)
  • A Yoruba woman wearing beaded necklaces (ilèkè)
  • A Yoruba chief dancing in front of the king (oba) of Ìlá Òràngún, Òsun State, Nigeria
  • Agbeni Sàngo shrine, Ibadan, Òyo State, Nigeria
  • Kneeling female figure with bowl (olumeye)
  • Epa Helmet Mask: Mother of Twins
  • Figure (Kasungalala)
  • Figure (possibly Kakulu)
  • Mask (Idimu or Muminia)
  • Mask (Idimu)
  • Face Mask (Idimu)
  • Figure (Iginga)
  • Head
  • Female Figure (Iginga)
  • Necklace
  • Man's Hat (Sawamazembe)
  • Man's Hat (Mukuba or Nkumbu za Nsembe)
  • Heddle Pulley
  • Heddle Pulley
  • Heddle Pulley
  • Necklace
  • Pendant
  • Pendant
  • Bracelet
  • Scorpion Finger Ring
  • Bracelet
  • Anklet
  • Pendant
  • Pair of Anklets
  • Bracelet
  • Robe (Boubou Lomasa)
  • Man's Robe
  • Woman's Necklace
  • Under Apron (Inkciyo)
  • Headdress
  • Crest (Nkum Messi)
  • Feather Headdress
  • Hat (Botolo)
  • Ceremonial Adze
  • Prestige Staff
  • Prestige Staff
  • Mother-and-Child Figure (Dege)
  • Helmet
  • Female Figure
  • Nursing Woman with Child
  • Shoulder Mask (D'mba)
  • Female figure
  • Female Figure
  • Mother-and-Child Figure (Oniemo)
  • Mother-and-Child Figure (Ère Ojúbo)
  • Mother-and-Child Figure
  • Mother-and-Child Figure (Pfemba)
  • Woman and child
  • Mother-and-Child Figure (Bwanga ba Cibola)
  • Mother-and-Child Figure (Gihalu Giwenyi)
  • Child Figure (Eiamba)
  • Child Figure (Biiga)
  • Child Figure (Ngwana 'A Modula)
  • Male Figure (Iphri)
  • Male Figure (Ivri)
  • Seven-Headed Figure
  • Male Figure (Chibinda Ilunga)
  • Male Figure (Singiti)
  • Equestrian Figure
  • Equestrian Figure
  • Face Mask (Sagbwe, Zakpäi Gä, or Gunyegä)
  • Face Mask (Bugle)
  • Face Mask (Luwusegle)
  • Face Mask (Takeagle, Tankagle, or Tankë Ge)
  • Face Mask (possibly Deangle)
  • Face Mask with Bird's Beak (Gägon)
  • Face Mask with Bird's Beak (Gägon)
  • Ceremonial Spoon (Wakemia or Wunkirmian)
  • Female Figure (Lü Mè)
  • Male Figure
  • Male Figure
  • Male Figure
  • Female Figure
  • Male Figure
  • Female figure
  • Male and Female Paired Figures
  • Female Face Mask (Kpan)
  • Female Face Mask (Ndoma)
  • Twin Face Mask (Mblo)
  • Female Face Mask (Ndoma)
  • Divination Vessel (Gbekre)
  • Divination Gong Beater (Lawle or Lowre)
  • Door
  • Bowl-Bearing Figure (Nkishi)
  • Bowstand (Lupanda or Luhanda)
  • Ceremonial Axe (Kibiki or Kasolwa)
  • Ceremonial Spear
  • Staff of Office (Kibango)
  • Female Figure (Nkishi)
  • Female Figure (Nkishi)
  • Female Figure (Nkishi)
  • Caryatid Headrest
  • Caryatid Stool (Lupona)
  • Male Figure (Singiti)
  • Male Figure (Singiti)
  • Male Figure
  • Face Mask
  • Female Figure
  • Head (possibly a King)
  • Double Figure
  • Figure
  • Face Mask
  • Face Mask
  • Crest Mask
  • Face Mask (Mukudj or Okuyi)
  • Face Mask
  • Male Figure
  • Male Figure
  • Male and Female Paired Figures
  • Female Figure (Nkishi)
  • Female Figure (Nkishi)
  • Male Figure (probably Singiti)
  • Male Figure (Bwanga bwa Bwimpe)
  • Female Figure (Bwanga bwa Bwimpe)
  • Female Figure (Lupingu Iwa Bwimpe or Bwanga bwa Bwimpe)
  • Haircomb
  • Haircomb
  • Haircomb
  • Haircomb
  • Female Mask (Kambanda)
  • Helmet Mask (Lipiko)
  • Kͻmͻ sanctuary in Bougouro village, Mali
  • Sacrifice over the Wara Kunw (Clawed Beasts' heads) in the Kͻmͻ Grove in Bougouro village, Mali
  • Modeling of Wara kunw in the Kͻmͻ grove in Bougouro village, Mali
  • Zoomorphic Figure (Boli)
  • Helmet Mask (Kͻmͻ Kun)
  • Figure (Kafigelejo)
  • Helmet Mask (possibly Kͻmͻ Kun)
  • Helmet Mask (Banda)
  • Mask (Angbai)
  • Helmet Mask (Bo nun Amuin)
  • Helmet Mask (Bo nun Amuin)
  • Monkey Figure
  • Helmet Cresk Mask (Mambu)
  • Crest Mask
  • Helmet Crest mask (Troh)
  • Two-Faced Helmet Crest Mask (Troh)
  • Face Mask (Nkukh or Asu Ngi)
  • Mask (Kakuungu)
  • Face Mask (Ngolo)
  • Face Mask (Pumbu)
  • Face Mask (Mwisi gwa So'o)
  • Face Mask (Kasangu)
  • Face Mask (Kifwebe)
  • Face Mask (Kifwebe)
  • Face Mask (Dehe Gla)
  • Face Mask (Tonhu Zri)
  • Face Mask
  • Mask
  • Face Mask (Tehe Gla)
  • Face Mask (Zu)
  • Face mask
  • Face Mask (Idiok Ekpo)
  • Face Mask (Idiok Ekpo)
  • Head of a Hobbyhorse (Korèdugaso)
  • Hyena Mask (Suruku)
  • Horse Mask (probably Sokun Kun)
  • Male Face Mask (Zauli)
  • Male Face Mask (Zauli)
  • Face Mask (Kindombolo)
  • Face mask (Kindombolo)
  • Two-Headed Helmet Mask (possibly Wabele or Wanyugo)
  • Helmet Mask (possibly Gbon)
  • Helmet Mask (Kponyungo)
  • Face Mask (probably Kpeli-ye'e)
  • Face Mask (probably Kpeli-ye'e)
  • Face Mask (probably Kpeli-ye'e)
  • Helmet Mask (Mgbedike)
  • Helmet Mask (Mgbedike)
  • Helmet Mask (Mgbedike)
  • Male Figure (Ikenga)
  • Male Figure (Ikenga)
  • Male Figure (Ikenga)
  • Face Mask (Agbogho Mmuo)
  • Face Mask (Agbogho Mmuo)
  • Half-Helmet Mask (Agbogho Mmuo)
  • Ugonachonma (The Eagle Seeks Out Beauty) Display Figure
  • Okoroshi oma Agiriga (Sprouting) dancing in a large arena
  • Okoroshi ojo Mgbaji (Breaker) with armed, chanting followers
  • Five Okperegede maskers seated before the Okperegede drum shrine
  • Asifu, the three-faced father and husband of female Okperegede maskers
  • Male Figure (Nkisi Nkondi: Mangaaka)
  • Male Figure (Nkisi Nkondi)
  • Male Figure (Nkisi Nkondi)
  • Male Figure (Nkisi Nkondi)
  • Two-Headed Dog Figure (Nkisi Nkondi Mbwa or Nkisi Kozo)
  • Two-Headed Dog Figure (Nkisi Nkondi Mbwa or Nkisi Kozo)
  • Female(?) Figure (Nkisi Nkondi)
  • Female(?) Figure (Nkisi Nkondi)
  • Male Figure (Nkisi Nkondi)
  • Male Figure (Nkisi: Yankima)
  • Male Figure (Nkishi)
  • Male Figure (Nkishi)
  • Male Figure (Nkishi)
  • Figure (Nkishi)
  • Male Figure (Nkishi)
  • Male Figure (Nkishi)
Free
Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
Contents
Author
PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
Foreword
PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
Acknowledgments
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PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
Note to the Reader
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PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
Lenders
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PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
n 1968, when I went to Côte d’Ivoire and began fieldwork for my master’s thesis on Baule aesthetics, I had no idea that I was part of a rapidly growing cohort of young, predominantly American art historians, the first whose understanding of African art would be grounded in comprehensive fieldwork...
PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
Related print edition pages: pp.16-23
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00326.1

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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
The traditional wooden sculptural art of the Chokwe, of Angola and neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo, is widely appreciated for its refinement and (relative) naturalism...
Author
PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
Related print edition pages: pp.24-29
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00326.2

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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
In the 1960s art historian Robert Farris Thompson was one of the first scholars in the United States to counter the false “beliefs of earlier ethnologists and art critics that Africans were incapable of aesthetic evaluation...
PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
Related print edition pages: pp.30-39
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00326.3

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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
When a work of traditional African art is subjected to aesthetic judgment by members of the originating community, their evaluation is rarely based solely on form...
Author
PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
Related print edition pages: pp.40-69
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00326.4

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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
Shelves filled to the brim with artifacts from Cameroon...
PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
Related print edition pages: pp.70-77
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00326.5

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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
n 1984 a landmark exhibition titled “Primitivism” in 20th Century Art: Affinities of the Tribal and the Modern was organized by the Museum of Modern Art, New York...
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PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
Related print edition pages: pp.78-93
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00326.6

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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
Life as a human being typically involves experiencing visual likes and dislikes. Sighted people tend to find various degrees of gratification in viewing some stimuli (from mild pleasure to intense delight), and they may experience aversion in beholding others (from slight displeasure to utter disgust)....
PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
Related print edition pages: pp.94-129
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00326.7

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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
African artists, patrons, and critics conceive and evaluate their local arts by using standards or criteria of beauty that are typically agreed upon within the originating community...
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PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
Related print edition pages: pp.130-153
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00326.8

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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
Numbering more than twenty-five million people, the Yòrùbá inhabit the present-day Republics of Nigeria, Benin, and Togo...
PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
Related print edition pages: pp.154-161
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00326.9

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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
One of the most common themes in sub-Saharan culture and art is the correspondence between beauty and ugliness, on one hand, and on the other, moral praise and condemnation...
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PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
Related print edition pages: pp.162-201
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00326.10

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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
In many parts of Africa, people create beauty that serves a purpose in the interactions between the material world of humans and the immaterial world of spirits...
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PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
Related print edition pages: pp.202-243
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00326.11

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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
Kɔmɔ is the most important religious institution among the Bamana, Malinke, and many other Mande (or Mandespeaking) cultures; it once affected a wide range of social, cultural, economic, and judicial spheres and remains a powerful force within the community...
PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
Related print edition pages: pp.244-249
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00326.12

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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
Like beautiful artistic expressions, ugly ones may be created in order to fulfill religious, social, political, educational, or entertainment functions...
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PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
Related print edition pages: pp.250-289
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00326.13

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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
The Igbo peoples of southeastern Nigeria are well known for two complementary classes of masks: white-faced, fine-featured females, and large dark heads with aggressive teeth and multiple horns...
PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
Related print edition pages: pp.290-295
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00326.14

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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
In this section we feature works representing a distinct aesthetic category, one that transcends what is locally considered beautiful and what is deemed ugly...
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PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
Related print edition pages: pp.296-309
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00326.15

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Free
Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
The scholarly quest for understanding the aesthetic in sub-Saharan cultures can be traced back some ninety years...
PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
Free
Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
What kinds of data form the foundation of scholarly knowledge about the aesthetic in sub-Saharan cultures?
PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
Checklist
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PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
Works Cited
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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
Contributors
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PublisherArt Institute of Chicago
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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
Index
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Description: The Language of Beauty in African Art
Photography Credits
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The Language of Beauty in African Art
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