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List of illustrations

  • All Saints' Day (Le Toussaint)
  • In the Land of the Sea: The Farewells (Au Pays de la mer: Les Adieux)
  • The Collector of Flotsam (La Ramasseuse d'épaves)
  • Visit to the Factory after a Soirée with the Director (Visite à l'usine après une soirée chez le directeur)
  • The Forges and Steel-works of Saint-Chamond; the Casting of a Naval Gun (Forges et acières de Saint-Chamond; sortie d'une pièce de marine)
  • Market at Château-Thierry (Le Marché à Château-Thierry)
  • The Conversation (La Conversation)
  • The Oarsmen of the Meurthe (Les Canotiers de la Meurthe)
  • The Panorama of the Century (Le Panorama du siècle), central section
  • The Republic (La République)
  • September Morning (Matinée de septembre)
  • The Crowning of Science (Le Couronnement de la Science)
  • The Earth (La Terre)
  • Claude Bernard's Demonstration (La leçon de Claude Bernard)
  • The Men of Holy Office (Les Hommes de saint-office)
  • September Morning on the Road to Villeneuve-les-Avignon, near Avignon (Matinée de septembre sur la route de Villeneuve-les-Avignon, environs d'Avignon)
  • Toulouse co-operating in the Defence of the Nation in 1870 (Toulouse coopérant à la défense nationale en 1870)
  • The Artillery Volunteers of Toulouse Leaving Belfort with the Honours of War (Les artilleurs mobiles de Toulouse quittent Belfort avec les honneurs de la guerre)
  • Monument to Admiral Courbet (Monument à l'amiral Courbet)
  • The Central Dome at the Exposition Universelle of 1889 (Le Dôme central à l'Exposition Universelle de 1889)
  • Death of Joseph Bara (Mort de Joseph Bara)
  • Shooting Practice (Le Tir)
  • The Death of Saint Genevieve (La Mort de sainte Geneviève)
  • Universal Suffrage (Le Suffrage universel)
  • Happy Days; The Child crowned with Flowers (Les Jours heureux; L'Enfant couronné de fleurs)
  • The Wall (La Muraille)
  • The Political Discussion (La Discussion politique)
  • Victor Hugo's Coffin Lying in State (Les Funérailles de Victor Hugo)
  • Marianne Offrey, Seller of Greens (Offrey, crieuse de vert)
  • The Reservists (Les Réservistes)
  • The Harvest (La Moisson)
  • Evening Work (La Veillée)
  • Labour, Building Site at Suresnes (Le Travail, chantier de Suresnes)
  • Transfusion of Goat's Blood (La Transfusion du sang de chèvre)
  • Municipal Laboratory, Prefecture of Police, boulevard du Palais (Le Laboratoire municipal, prefecture de police, boulevard du Palais)
  • Study for Homage to Merit (study for Hommage au mérite)
  • The Presentation of Banners, 14 July 1880 (La Distribution des drapeaux, le 14 juillet 1880)
  • Les Halles
  • Official Reception of the President of the Republic by the Authorities of Boulogne, June 1889 (Réception officielle du Président de la République par les autorités de la ville de Boulogne, le 4 juin 1889, place de la République)
  • The Funeral of Pasteur, 5 October 1895 (Les Funerailles de Pasteur, 5 octobre 1895)
  • The Statue of Liberty in Auguste Bartholdi's Studio (La Statue de Liberté dans l'atelier d'Auguste Bartholdi)
  • Le Journal des débats in 1889 (Le Journal des débats en 1889)
  • At La République française (A La République française)
  • Coquelin the Elder in the Role of Crispin in Molière's Les Fourberies de Scapin (Coquelin aîné dans le rôle de Crispin)
  • The Death of General Beaupuy (La Mort du général Beaupuy)
  • The Massacre of Machecoul, 10 March 1793 (Massacre of Machecoul, 10 March 1793)
  • Abandoned Baby Boy Awakening (Le Réveil de l'abandonné)
  • In Front of the Maternity Hospital (Devant la Maternité)
  • Breast-feeding Time for the Sickly Children at the Maternité Hosptial (L'Heure de la tétée des enfants débiles à la maternité)
  • Flower-seller (Marchande de fleurs)
  • Harvest in the Sanières (La Moisson à Sanières)
  • The Room of Dolls (La Chambre des poupées)
  • Victim – Asphyxia (L'Asphyxiée – Asphyxia)
  • Blessing of the Young Bridal Couple before Marriage (Bénédiction des jeunes époux avant le marriage: coutume de Franche-Comté)
  • To Those Lost at Sea (Aux Péris en mer)
  • The Lake of Eychauda (Le Lac d'Eychauda)
  • Ruins: Inner Voices (Ruines: voix intérieures)
  • The Reader in White (Le Liseur blanc)
  • The Vault of Steel (La Voûte d'arcier)
  • A Session of the Salon Jury (Une Séance du jury de peinture)
  • General Faron's Division at Champigny (La Division Faron à Champigny)
  • Rouby, Cement Worker (Rouby, le cimentier)
  • Paying the Harvesters (La Paye des moissoneurs)
  • Before the Operation
  • Provençal Landscape, l'Estérel (Paysage de Provence, L'Estérel)
  • Marat assassinated! 13 July 1793, 8 o'clock in the Evening (Marat assassiné! 13 juillet 1793, 8h du soir)
  • Marat's Assassination (L'Assassination de Marat)
  • Boule de suif
  • Victims of Duty (Les Victimes du devoir)
  • Primary School Class (En Classe, le travail des petits)
  • Renan Composing his Prayer on the Acropolis of Athens (Renan méditant sa prière sur l'Acropole d'Athènes)
  • Ragpicker Lighting His Pipe (Chiffonnier allumant sa pipe)
  • Georges Clemenceau Making a Speech at the Cirque Fernando (Georges Clemenceau prononçant un discours au cirque Fernando)
  • At the Foundry (Chez le Fondeur)
  • The Strike of the Miners (La Grève des mineurs)
  • A Clinical Lesson at the Salpêtrière (Une Leçon Clinique à la Salpêtrière)
  • A Cast from Life at the Haviland Workshop at Auteuil (Un Moulage sur nature chez Haviland à Auteuil )
  • Monte Carlo: 'Rien ne va plus!'
  • Circus Games and Fairgound Life (Les Jeux du cirque et la vie foraine)
  • Anthropometric Self-portrait at the age of 40 (Autoportrait signaletique à l'âge de 40 ans)
  • Portrait of Paul Verlaine (Portrait de Paul Verlaine)
  • Restoration (Une Restauration)
  • Jockeys before the Start (Jockeys avant la course)
  • Riders on the Avenue des Champs-Élysées (Cavaliers dans l'avenue des Champs-Élysées)
  • The Ballet of 'Robert le Diable' (Le Ballet de 'Robert le Diable')
  • The Wood Gatherer (Le Père Jacques)
  • Return from Fishing at Berck-sur-Mer (Retour de pêche à Berck-sur-Mer)
  • Vertigo (Le Vertige)
  • Line of Fire (Ligne de feu)
  • Breton Serving Girl (La Serveuse bretonne)
  • Mist on the River (Brouillard sur la rivière)
  • In the Forest (Dans la forêt)
  • In Flanders, Evening (En Flandre, le soir)
  • In the Land of Mines (Au Pays de la mine)
  • In the Land of the Sea. Stormy Evening, People Passing (Au Pays de la mer. Soir orageux, des gens passent)
  • The Rocky Coast of Toulinguet, near Camaret (La Côte sauvage du Toulinguet, près de Camaret)
  • In the Land of the Sea: Ouessant Women watching over a Dead Infant (Au Pays de la Mer: gens d'Ouessant veillant un enfant mort)
  • Procession at Penmarc'h, Finistère (Procession à Penmarc'h, Finistère)
  • Porte Maillot Hippodrome: Paris at the Races (Hippodrome de la Porte Maillot: Paris courses)
  • Spare Us, O Lord (Parce Domine)
  • We Praise Thee, O Lord (Te Deum Laudamus)
  • Yvette Guilbert
  • On "Saligotisme" in art: recollections of a visit to a doss-house for painting' ('Du Saligotisme dans l'art: souvenirs d'une viste à l'asile de l'Hospitalitè de nuit de la peinture'
  • So are cobblestones heavy? Yes, mate, heavier than a chamber-pot!' ('Dites donc, c'est lourd les pavès? Oui, mon vieux, c'est plus lourd qu'un pot de chambre!')
  • Le Vingtième Siècle
  • At the Dentist (Chez le dentiste)
  • Toulouse-Lautrec
  • Vincent van Gogh
  • There's nobody like me for working a man ('Y en a pas deux comme moi pour travailler un homme')
  • Penal Labour (Le Bagne)
  • Le Guignol du Chat Noir
  • A Fortune-teller (Une Diseuse de bonne aventure)
  • Place de la Concorde
  • A Sunday on the Grande Jatte—1884
  • Civil Marriage (Le Mariage civil)
  • Dr. Péan Operating (Le docteur Péan opérant)
  • At the Circus (Au Cirque)
  • Bare-back Rider. At the Cirque Fernando (Equestrienne. Au Cirque Fernando)
  • A la Mie
  • The Absinthe Drinkers (Les Déclassés)
  • La Goulue entering the Moulin Rouge (La Goulue entrant au Moulin Rouge)
  • Two Men Talking (Deux Hommes causant)
  • The Cancan (Le Chahut)
  • Ballet Rehearsal at the Folies Musicales (Une répétition de ballet aux Folies Musicales)
  • Obsession (Hantise)
  • Fleurs, Fruits et légumes du jour, no. 27
  • When Life Awakens from the Depths of Obscure Matter
  • A Ball at the Elysée Palace (Un bal à l'Elysée)
  • The Gate of Parsifal (La Porte de Parsifal)
  • How Women Distort Themselves (Comment les femmes se déforment)
  • Mme. Ranson with a Cat (Mme Ranson au chat)
  • Le Moulin Rouge
  • Tea in the Garden (Le Goûter au jardin)
  • Conversation
  • Coquelin cadet
  • Woman with Green Bonnet in Profile (Femme de profil au chapeau vert)
  • Monument à Louis Pasteur
  • Propaganda (Propagande)
  • The Municipal Council of Pierrelaye organising the Annual Fête (Conseil municipal et commission de Pierrelaye organisant la fête)
  • In flagrante delicto (Flagrant délit)
  • The Bakers (Les Boulangers)
  • Myself, Portrait-Landscape of the Artist (Moi-même, portrait-paysage de l'auteur)
  • Joseph Roulin
  • Joseph Roulin
  • Joseph Roulin
  • Aristide Bruant
  • Le Pont de Grenelle
  • A Centennial of Independence
  • Circus
  • Cock-fight in Flanders (combat de doqs en Flandre)
  • The Starry Night
  • The Feast of Silenus (La Fête de Silène)
  • The 14th July, 1880 (Le 14 julliet 1880)
  • The Joys of Life: Flowers, Women, Music (Les Joies de la vie: fleurs, femmes, musique)
  • Summer (L'Eté)
  • The Sick Woman (La Malade)
  • The Chemistry Course (Le Cours de Chimie)
  • Truth leading the Sciences behind her illuminates Mankind (La Vérité entraînant les Sciences à la suite répand sa lumière sur les hommes)
  • Fairyland: Enchanted Garden (Le Pays des fées: Jardin enchanté)
  • Life reborn from Death (La Vie renaissant de la mort)
  • Loïe Fuller dancing with her Drape (Loïe Fuller dansant avec sa voile)
  • Dinosaur bones
  • Humanity (Humanité)
  • The Origins (Frontispiece of Les Origines)
  • Sea Creatures Bulbous as Goatskin Bottle (Les Bêtes de la mer rondes comme des outres)
  • Physics (La Physique)
  • Botany and Medicine (La Botanique et la Médecine)
  • Intimacy (Intimité)
  • Rodin Exhibition (Exposition Rodin)
  • Working-class Theatre (Théâtre populaire)
  • Landscape near Saint-Brieuc (Paysage aux environs de Saint-Brieuc)
  • Rocks at Port-Goulphar (Bloc de rochers à Port-Goulphar)
  • Creuse, sunset (Creuse, soleil couchant)
  • Grainstack, Sun in the Mist (Meule, soleil dans la brume)
  • The Olive Grove (Les Oliviers)
  • Love in the Village (L'Amour au village)
  • At the Milliner's (Chez la modiste)
  • Frieze of Dancers
  • The Beach at Fécamp (La Plage à Fécamp)
  • Grainval, near Fécamp (A Grainval près de Fécamp)
  • The Church at Varengeville, Morning Effect (L'Eglise à Varengeville, effet matinal)
  • Low Tide at Varengeville (Marèe basse devant Varengeville)
  • Eugène Manet and his Daughter in the Garden (Eugène Manet et sa fille dans le jardin)
  • Poor Fauvette (Pauvre Fauvette)
  • Old Peasant (Vieux Paysan)
  • The Peasant (Le Paysan)
  • Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc)
  • Corner of a Garden in Monaco (Coin de jardin à Monaco)
  • The Farm, Morning (La Ferme, matin)
  • Saint-Cast
  • Catholic Mystery (Mystère Catholique)
  • The Legend of St. Hubert (La Légende de Saint Hubert)
  • In the Time of Harmony (Au temps d'harmonie)
  • Washing (La Toilette)
  • High C (Forte Chanteuse)
  • Study for A Bathing Place, Asnières
  • Study for A Sunday on the Grande Jatte—1884
  • The Street Singers (Les Chateurs)
  • The Strong Men (Les Hercules)
  • Bad-luck Alfred (Alfred la Guigne)
  • At the Moulin Rouge (Au Moulin Rouge)
  • Four Female Bathers (Quatre Baigneuses)
  • Female Bathers (Les Baigneuses)
  • Portrait of Gustave Geffroy
  • Portrait of Mme Coquelin (Portrait de Madame Coquelin mère)
  • The Estuary (L'Estuaire)
  • Square by Moonlight, Beauvais (Place au clair de lune, Beauvais)
  • Autumn Princess (Princesse d'automne)
  • In the Meadow (Dans la Prairie)
  • Woman Pasturing her Cow (Femme faisant paître sa vache)
  • The Gleaners (Les Glaneuses)
  • Oyster-gatherers at Cancale (Chercheuses d'huîtres à Cancale)
  • Two studies for The Three Graces (Les Trois Grâces)
  • The Child Jesus among the Doctors (L'Enfant Jésus parmi les docteurs)
  • Evening (after Millet)
  • Evening (after Millet)
  • To Gustave Flaubert (A Gustave Flaubert)
  • Mephistopheles Flying over the Town (Méphistophélès dans les airs)
  • My kisses have the taste of a fruit . . . (Mes baisers ont le goût d'un fruit . . . )
  • Ideal Head of a Woman
  • Bellevue
  • Bridge of St-Cloud from Sèvres
  • Capo di Noli
  • Rue Saint-Honore, Afternoon, Rain Effect (Rue Saint-Honoré, après-midi, effet de pluie)
  • Water-Lily Pond
  • Mother and Daughter at the Table (Mère et fille à table)
  • Woman Sweeping (Femme balayant)
  • Interior of the Auberge Gloanec at Pont-Aven (Intérieur de l'auberge Gloanec à Pont-Aven)
  • The Chequered Blouse (Le Corsage aux carreaux)
  • Study for The Chequered Blouse (Le Corsage aux carreaux)
  • Woman Arranging her Hair (Femme se coiffant)
  • Summer (L'Eté)
  • La Porte Binet at the 1900 Exposition Universelle, Paris
  • Frieze of Labour (Frise de travail)
  • The Dancer (La Danseuse)
  • Luncheon on the Grass (Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe)
  • Under the Pines, Evening, Antibes (Sous les pins, fin de jour, Antibes)
  • The Dubourg Family
  • Louis-Henri Devillez dans son atelier
  • Still Life with Blue Tablecloth (Nature morte au camaïeu bleu)
  • Le Bar
  • Blue Nude
  • Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
  • Ernest Renan
Free
Description: Art of the Actual: Naturalism and Style in Early Third Republic France,...
Contents
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00022.001
Free
Description: Art of the Actual: Naturalism and Style in Early Third Republic France,...
~My first thanks are to the Slade Electors at the University of Oxford for their invitation in the autumn of 2006 to give the Slade Lectures in 2009. This encouraged me to put together in straightforward and even argumentative form ideas that had been with me for a long time, ideas that supplement and overlap the more thematic historical approach of my earlier book...
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00022.002
Free
Description: Art of the Actual: Naturalism and Style in Early Third Republic France,...
~This book is based on the Slade Lectures that I gave at the University of Oxford in Hilary Term 2009. While in Oxford between January and March the eight lectures were redrafted and expanded, and they have undergone further iterations. Nevertheless, the book retains something of the liberty that the lecture series allows: an expansive tone, the opportunity both...
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00022.003
Description: Art of the Actual: Naturalism and Style in Early Third Republic France,...
~Naturalism was the dominant aesthetic of late nineteenth-century France. In painting as in literature it set the cultural tone, shaped and suited the mentalité of the mainstream, worked hand-in-hand with the political ideology of the Third Republic. And no...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.1-31
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00022.004

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Description: Art of the Actual: Naturalism and Style in Early Third Republic France,...
~Naturalism suited the Third Republic. Republicanism privileged the naturalist aesthetic and...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.33-79
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00022.005

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Description: Art of the Actual: Naturalism and Style in Early Third Republic France,...
~The established consensus in contemporary culture about the value of exactitude and legibility played a central part in the making, interpreting and appreciation of painting. Indeed, this process was circular, a self-fulfilling prophecy. The modern mentality set great store by precision and the document; contemporary pictures scrupulously recorded the present...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.81-115
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00022.006

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Description: Art of the Actual: Naturalism and Style in Early Third Republic France,...
~One of the issues that haunted naturalism was whether it was a style at all. This was a consistent complaint of more conservative critics. Reviewing the 1894 SAF for Juliette Adam’s...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.117-141
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00022.007

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Description: Art of the Actual: Naturalism and Style in Early Third Republic France,...
~~The centrality that the naturalist aesthetic established in the visual arts in the 1880s and 1890s was in substantial part based on its stylistic flexibility as a means of representation – the descriptive allowing scope for a plurality of touch, tone and surface – and so its ability to embrace a wide range of artistic...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.143-183
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00022.008

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Description: Art of the Actual: Naturalism and Style in Early Third Republic France,...
~~How the Third Republic used art to address the people, in the democracy that France proudly proclaimed itself to be, has been explored in the early chapters. The state employed its systems and patronage to disseminate its ideology, instil its values. This was an initiative that came from above, from the...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.185-207
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00022.009

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Description: Art of the Actual: Naturalism and Style in Early Third Republic France,...
~Unlike the pervasive taste for the caricatural or the promiscuous use of the word populaire, the ‘organic’ or ‘organicism’ were not concepts current in French writing about visual...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.209-237
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00022.010

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Description: Art of the Actual: Naturalism and Style in Early Third Republic France,...
~The two concluding chapters turn their attention to the avant-garde, to look at painters – Degas and Monet, Seurat and Cézanne, Signac and Denis – who might be expected to dominate a book on French painting between 1880 and 1900. After all, such artists paved the way for important innovations in the early twentieth century. They are major figures...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.239-273
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00022.011

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Description: Art of the Actual: Naturalism and Style in Early Third Republic France,...
~Striving away from naturalism to achieve style, abandoning the republican consensus to appeal to an elite, denying the inclusive for the exclusive, was a strategy rather more insecure than is perhaps typically understood. There was an increasing lack of momentum in avant-garde...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.275-304
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00022.012

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Description: Art of the Actual: Naturalism and Style in Early Third Republic France,...
~The pervasiveness of naturalism in France at the end of the nineteenth century, in the visual arts and literature alike, meant that its citizens were constantly confronted by themselves. On the walls of the Salons, in the pages of weekly illustrated magazines, framed in the classroom, decorating the flat surfaces of public buildings, crowding museum...
PublisherYale University Press
Related print edition pages: pp.307-311
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00022.013

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Description: Art of the Actual: Naturalism and Style in Early Third Republic France,...
Bibliography
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00022.014
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Description: Art of the Actual: Naturalism and Style in Early Third Republic France,...
Index
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00022.015
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Description: Art of the Actual: Naturalism and Style in Early Third Republic France,...
Photograph Credits
PublisherYale University Press
https://doi.org/10.37862/aaeportal.00022.016
Art of the Actual: Naturalism and Style in Early Third Republic France, 1880–1900
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